“How do you settle on a start-up strategy when what you need to know in your start-up changes every day?”
Today we answered your question:
“How do you settle on a start-up strategy when what you need to know in your start-up changes every day?”
I understand your dilemma completely and you are not alone. Since 2015 I have worked with start-ups and established businesses of all sizes to scientifically identify and develop capabilities and big picture strategies that include both consistency and adaptability. However, without a solid business foundation or blueprint from which to launch, an effective strategy can appear elusive.
Each business day is a day of learning and change. Technology advancements and the pandemic have also created a business environment that requires change and adaptability to occur more frequently, from day to day, week to week, to every 12 to 18 months. What worked for a business longer than 7 months ago does not work today. There are three science-based tools at your disposal that may help you create an effective start-up strategy. The tools are effective strategy, business model and knowledge.
As a simple exercise think back 7 months and reflect on how you worked and lived just before COVID lock down, how you live and work now, and the changes you have had to make. Those changes may include the daily use of available technologies you may only have used occasionally in the past such as Zoom. The way you interact with others on camera compared to face to face, and a new language you may have had to learn, such as ‘unmute yourself’. You have had to change and adapt quickly, yet your character or blueprint has not changed.
To create a business blueprint, a solid foundation, in these uncertain times, a science-based business model can be applied. Complete the different business model elements for your business in carefully thought out detail. Make it your own, because this blueprint can inform all strategies going forward. It also provides insight into the areas that can be adapted to business environment changes, and help you keep a competitive advantage.
Find a business model template here.
Learn from each change you make. Make a hard copy note of the changes you are making in your start-up. Critically assess, that is note the good and not so good, reasons for what prompted the change, why you chose the specific new route, what are the good and not so good results from each route. Next time, faced with similar decisions, you have the start of a database of valuable knowledge about what has and has not worked in the past. This way you understand your decision-making process, avoid repeating errors while continuously repeating the good decisions you made. This way the knowledge becomes a powerful tool that helps you formulate a more solid strategy. This process is called ‘codifying’, documenting valuable knowledge relevant to your business only.
Learn more about formulating strategies then use the elements of a strategy to solve your question as a problem. What I mean is a strategy consists of at least three parts: the problem, guiding principles, and actions for overcoming the problem. It is a linear, or step by step process of identifying the problem, identifying guiding principles that influence the solution you select (such as those discussed as a business model), and the planned actions you take to solve the problem. This approach could be used to answer your own question.
To learn more about strategy, try reading Good Strategy Bad Strategy: The Difference and Why It Matters by Richard P. Rumelt.
If you like, you can learn more about business and technology management here.
The quick answer is the business model(s) informs the business strategy.
A business model is a scientific concept model turning the key elements in any business into a graphic model. Key elements present in any business are the target market, how you reach your target market, what value you are providing them unique to what’s on the market already (what problem you are solving), how the business will bring in revenue, the key activities of the business required to deliver the value, and the expenses. Combined, these elements drive strategic decision-making in the business. The decisions are turned into planned actions with expected outcomes and deadlines as a strategy. Business level strategies would be more focused on the delivery of the key elements of unique value, increasing reach and expansion of target segments.
If you like, you can learn more about business and technology management here.
Today we answered your question:
“What is a book recommended about the foundation of a company which is aimed to grow as a large corporate with small capital and without making loans, by reference to (a) real successful preferably recently founded corporate(s) experience?”
A very informative book, read as part of a recent postgraduate OU university course, about starting, managing, and growing a business with real examples is:
Exploring Entrepreneurship practices and perspectives by Richard Blundel and Nigel Lockett.
If you like, you can learn more about business and technology management here from T.O.O.D
Today I answered your question:
“What are the most dominant competitive advantages of any business generally speaking?”
From a contemporary technology and innovation perspective, there are several areas within any business that can be used as dominant dynamic competitive advantages. However, firstly, the business needs to develop the capability of adapting to change and managing uncertainty effectively. A business that learns from customers and the business environment it functions in, then adapts quickly, is a necessity today for creating a competitive advantage. A business that effectively manages uncertainty can adapt quickly.
Here are 4 key areas of a business that can be adapted once the above capabilities have been developed:
Continuous learning about changes often provide insights into changes to be made and new opportunities. For example, changes in new technologies, legislation, economic conditions, customer changing habits provide early insights to changes that need to be made. A current example is the need for masks and sanitisers because of COVID 19.
Identify which aspects of your business model can be adapted or innovated to provide a significant competitive advantage is contemporary. Consider Uber versus traditional taxi services as an example.
New technologies open doors to creating new products, delivering services in different ways, streamlining or changing processes to create more value for clients than your competitors, that is, a competitive advantage. For example, e-commerce convenience with speedy delivery and no-fuss returns, or free knowledge for learning available online from universities and only pay when you need an official certificate.
Very popular today, backed up by scientific evidence, is using a clearly communicated titillating culture ‘statement’ for customers and quality staff with the same mindset to ‘buy into’. The statement defines, explains, and clearly expresses the ‘character’ of the company. The statement not only positions the company in the market, but also expresses the unique value offered to customers. This unique value often highlights what customers and potential staff want and can’t get from competitors (the competitive advantage).
If you like, you can learn more byfollowing us on social media.
#toodglobal #smarterbusiness #competitiveadvantage #CTO #FSB #BusComm
Today I answered your question: “How do you maintain a competitive advantage?”
Creating and maintaining a strong competitive advantage is a highly specialised skill. In contemporary businesses it is often the job of the Chief Technology Officer (CTO). So, from a CTO’s perspective, it is a company’s ability to adapt that is key to maintaining a dynamic competitive advantage. Here are two reasons why.
The current business environment changes every 18 months as a result of technological advancements. Technology advancements, for example, can create new ways to deliver services (e.g. Netflix streaming films rather than dvd’s), creates new types of products (VoIP phones rather than analogue lines), and new ways to deliver value to customers (convenient e-commerce rather than in store shopping). Another point to consider is that as competitors become aware of your competitive advantage, they copy it while overcoming what you are not able to offer your customers, so creating a competitive advantage is an ongoing activity.
So, a key capability each organisation should have to maintain a competitive advantage is the ability to adapt to the changing business environment and to customers changing buying habits and needs. However, not all aspects of a business can be adapted. For example, changing the culture of a well-established global organisation is tricky, time consuming (longer than 18 months) and seldom successful (IBM is an example of a successful cultural change).
Regular research can provide an intimate awareness of the business environment that provides insights into change. Insights come from current, authoritative research of competitors, market trends, legislative changes, and emerging technology trends on a local and global scale. Local and global is necessary because the internet has destroyed geographical boundaries. As changes occur the company can identify new opportunities for competitive advantage and adapt accordingly.
Another way an organisation can be adaptable is to gain insights from customers by effectively and efficiently collecting, analyzing and skilfully using relevant knowledge from within the organisation. A simple example we see everywhere is asking customers for feedback on the product/service/process as they have experienced it. The feedback can be used to enhance the organisation and increase the customers satisfaction dealing with the organisation. This translates into a loyal, happy customer who will think twice about leaving for a competitor. It also helps the company stay in touch with their customers changing habits and needs.
This answer to your question is an example of what retired CEO of General Electric, Jack Welch, meant when he said, “An organisation’s ability to learn and translate that learning into action rapidly is the ultimate competitive advantage”.
Today I answered your question “Where can I ask people to rate my brand/domain name?”
Today, most businesses conduct continuous surveys to stay in touch with clients changing needs. I would recommend you do the same.
A survey can be one simple, targeted question for respondents to fill in rather than many, irrelevant questions. Keep it short and easy for people to complete and tell them why you are asking the question(s).
If you are looking for feedback on your brand from any source and you don’t know anyone, try joining business groups, for example, those on Facebook and ask the group members for their opinion. Remember it is just an opinion.
If you are looking for feedback from existing and potential clients, try compiling a simple survey for them to complete.
The survey should have a specific objective. For example, rather than saying ‘rate my brand/domain name’, your survey should ask questions that provide an answer to whether your brand is clear, or strong for the sector. Be specific about what you are trying to find out. By doing so it will guide you to ask the right questions. For example, ask whether the colours or name are offensive.
Use a combination of positive and negative questions for balance. Ask for additional comments too. Try asking closed questions requiring a yes, no, answers and make sure your questions are not worded in a leading way that forces the participant to give you the answer you want to hear.
You could, for example, ask respondents to rate the effectiveness of the brand on a scale of 1 to 5 or rate the impact of the brand from a negative impact at -5 to a powerful positive impact at +5. Do not ask the respondent for personal details as you don’t need them to determine your brand rating.
I use SurveyMonkey because it forces you to keep to a few questions keeping things relevant, and it collates the responses for you in graphic form making it easier for you to see the results which inform your decisions going forward.
#toodglobal #smarterbusiness #competitiveadvantage #CTO #surveys #feedback
Wow! Thank you!
We have had 785 views of our answer to your question posted on the 29th July 2020!
Your question was: “How does a company develop the culture of a business? Is it something that is planned or eventually forms as the business grows and develops?”
Today, I answered your question:
“What are the common business strategy mistakes?”
Four common mistakes I have come across in businesses formulating strategies are:
Richard Rumelt’s book “Good strategy, bad strategy” is an old but good read and discusses in length about what is a good strategy and what is a bad one, and why template-based strategies are so bad.
“How does a company develop the culture of the business? Is it something that is planned or eventually forms as the business grows and develops?”
The following is from a contemporary technology and business innovation/change management perspective.
Elliott Jacques’ (1951) defines culture as the “customary and traditional way of thinking and of doing things, which is shared to a greater or lesser extent by all [...] which new members must learn, and [...] accept, in order to be accepted into service in the firm”.
In simple terms this definition suggests that the culture is planned and established when the company is set up, such as the logos, titles, as well as the business and power structure. For example, does the company use processes to control staff or rules? Is the company hierarchical (top-to-bottom) where the top man sets the core belief system, or is it horizontal where all staff play a vital part? Culture is often expressed as “the way we do things here” so includes accepted rituals, norms, values, acronyms whether set by management, influenced by staff, or both, over time.
Today, companies are redefining their culture, strategically expressing and using their culture as a dynamic (changeable) competitive advantage, a tool that sets the company apart from competitors, and entices loyal customers and quality staff with the ‘matching’ mindset. That’s why, today, we see an abundance of statements such as “People over process” (Netflix, 2020), or, “Move fast. Be bold. Be yourself (Facebook, 2020). So, a modern company’s strategy is one that embraces and plans for ongoing culture statement changes with the times, to always remain fresh, relevant and enticing.
Companies are also changing their cultures completely to ensure longevity. IBM are an example of successful cultural change from black suited, rules orientated, to the dynamic company it is today. The IBM story makes good reading.
The following is from a contemporary technology and business innovation/change management perspective.
Ginni Rometty, CEO of IBM says, "You've got to keep reinventing. You'll have new competitors. You'll have new customers all around you."
Ginni’s comment says it all. To stay in business and to remain profitable businesses change and adapt constantly. Some changes are visible, such as Amazon Books expanding to include Cloud Services. Some changes are invisible yet equally as powerful. For example, P & G changed their R&D business model from researching and developing their own products in-house to engaging in open innovation with strategic partners.
Had these companies stayed as they were focused on existing clients without looking for new opportunities, customer segments, and new ways to remain competitive, they would not be the powerhouses they are today because their early business model would not be relevant today. A popular example of this phenomena is Kodak who went from supplying 90% of USA film industry to nearly no business at all.
So, to answer the question in general terms, companies need to focus on existing and new customers. Look after today’s customers in a way that outshines your competitors to feed your business today so that you can “keep reinventing” (Ginni Rometty) to open new customer segments to secure your business tomorrow.
Today, I answered your question:
“Why does change management fail in most of the companies?”
There are many reasons for change management failures. One common reason is that the decisions surrounding change are approached in a project-like or linear process by senior management. For example, step 1 - what is the problem. Step 2 - how can we resolve the problem. Step 3 - formulate a strategy for rolling out the selected change. Step 4 - implement the change.
However, change involves people. People, or stakeholders, are often overlooked in the change process yet have the power to significantly influence the success or failure of the change. A common example from a technology perspective is business A researching and selecting new software to modernise the business. Six months after purchase none of the staff were using the software because it was too awkward to use and slowed staff down.
So, a more holistic approach is required for successful change. An approach of learning and understanding the interactions between stakeholders and the area requiring change before any decisions can be made on what that change should look like. This approach ensures the stakeholders have been considered, are part of the change process, and have had time to adapt to the change when it occurs. After change roll-out a delegated champion can keep morale positive by being available to support stakeholders with difficulties surrounding the change and to remind them regularly to apply the new changes.
People are viewing our content because we answer your real life questions.
If you are currently looking at adopting a popular business model, whether it be for a new business idea or innovating or updating an existing business, a strong strategy would be to familiarise yourself with today's popular business models. Then adopt one (if possible) that will be widely adopted over the next 5 years. That way you can get ahead of your competition. Here is some useful information and a resource to get you started:
A strong, precise business model(s) can be a powerful tool for innovation, competitive advantage, decision-making, and culture development. Business models (BM) can either be explicit, written/drawn out, or implicit, unspoken/ undocumented, yet no less powerful. A business model can be a graphic, template, or text heavy document in the form of a business plan. Often businesses have more than one business model (BM). For example, a business may have one BM for each of the following:
Building and developing strategic partnerships
There are over 50 types of BM’s that most businesses fall into (Gassmann et al, 2014). Some of the most common today are:
Freemium (18) - use some of the service for free, upgrade for additional functionality;
Subscription (48) - pay a monthly fee starting at an affordable price point with the option to increase or decrease over time;
E-commerce (13)- sell products/services online;
Performance based (38) - the client pays on results.
St Gallens Business Model Navigator (Gassmann et al, 2014)
“What are the best ways that companies have pivoted to meet the changing demands of their consumers?”
The economist Schumpeter (1939) identified a close relationship between technology developments and business cycles. Throughout history technology revolutions have occurred in tandem with business cycles or waves. In simple terms a new wave begins with each new technology bringing a surge of new products, services, skill developments, and devices over a period followed by a period of decline. Schumpeter shows the first wave starting in 1785 with the introduction of water power, textiles, and iron. Throughout the upward surge of the wave companies identify new opportunities and pivot to create new products/services/process or find new ways to do old things for greater revenue and competitive advantage.
Currently we appear to be experiencing the slowing down/decline of the 5th wave of digital networks, software, media, which started around 1990. Digital technologies removed geographical borders so anyone anywhere can conduct business/shop/interact at any time. Consumers have more choice. Also, the explosion of digital access to knowledge has created a far more informed consumer. The overall effect is the consumer no longer has to accept an unpleasant supplier experience because there are so many other suppliers to choose from and other more pleasant options available.
So the best way companies have pivoted to meet consumer demands over the past 30 years is to strive to provide good quality customer-centric all round experiences rather than expecting the customer to adapt to their way of doing business. In other words, its all about the customer.
The customer experience starts from the start of the customer journey whether it be buying in to the explicit company culture, mission, vision, to quality, affordability, availability, convenience, interaction and engagement, satisfaction, to name a few. Hence the explosion for the past few years of surveys, reviews and questionnaires. The data from these sources is collated and skillfully applied to pivot the company to meet their customer demands ahead of competition. As Jack Welch, retired CEO of General Electric said, “ An organisations ability to learn, and translate that learning into action rapidly, is the ultimate competitive advantage.”
The ability to dynamically pivot business models, service delivery, products, customer experience, using technologies as the business context changes is key to company survival and competitive advantage.
To succeed in any business environment a business requires both core and dynamic capabilities. Our focus here are dynamic capabilities, the ability to learn, apply the learning skilfully to adapt quickly.
Dynamic capabilities are necessary because the business environment is never static, it changes constantly, so a business needs to adapt with it. I like to use the athletics race analogy. Imagine a 100 metre race. A runner bursts off the start line as the gun goes off, immediately striking and maintaining a steady, strong pace, never changing, even when competitors pass by on the track. Who will get to the finish line first? Like the runner, without adaption the business becomes stagnant, and competitors who are adapting, pass by reaching the customer first.
From a technology and innovation perspective, the need for adaptability stems from technology advancements. In today’s environment advancements occur every 18 months. Advancements mean a new set of competitors offering new, more convenient, more enticing and exciting ways to interest a finite number of customers. New technologies have removed geographical borders, so competitors are global, and therefore, are unknown, compared to previous years where competitors where more local, easier to recognise and keep an eye on. As Jack Welch, retired CEO for General Electric, said “ An organisation’s ability to learn, and translate that learning into action rapidly, is the ultimate competitive advantage".
So getting ahead, and staying ahead, of the competition requires, robust competitor and business environment research that informs a good strategy, and which dynamic capabilities to develop. Here are 3 common dynamic capabilities using Zoom under COVID as an example where a thorough simple STEEPLE/PESTLE analysis can help identify changes and new opportunities.
1.Business contextual factors
Zoom has flourished due to the global need for video conferencing for communication. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2020/jun/03/zoom-booms-as-teleconferencing-company-profits-from-coronavirus-crisis
Zoom application and infrastructure was in place when the world needed it, was easy to set up and use, and low cost. Entrepreneurs recognising the trend early have developed alternative applications that offer all the things Zoom doesn’t offer. Megatrends can also help identify ‘sub’ trends sprouting from the megatrend. For example, online video teaching, though around for quite a few years already, has exploded recently.
In both the examples above businesses have used technologies to grasp opportunities in delivering a service to satisfy the demand of the consumer.
Develop the capability to stay up to date, and recognise changes, in these 3 dynamic areas, then apply your findings to your advantage, to get ahead, and stay ahead, of your competitors.
A strong, precise business model(s) can be a powerful tool especially during COVID and beyond.
Business models (BM) can either be explicit, written/drawn out, or implicit, unspoken/ undocumented, yet no less powerful.
Often businesses have more than one business model (BM). For example, a business may have a BM for innovation, change, technologies, building and developing strategic partnerships, acquisitions that focus on buying up established competitors with key skills/products/services that complement the business.
There are also over 50 types of BM’s that most businesses fall into (Gassmann et al, 2014). For example, freemium, subscription, flat rate, e-commerce, retainer.
Business model(s) (BM) are powerful tools to any size contemporary business if applied skillfully. Here are a few examples:
So, a business model is a vital, powerful tool at any time for any size business at any stage of development. During COVID especially because a business needs to know what decisions can be made, within which boundaries, while retaining its core and lead over competitors so that they business continues to succeed during and beyond COVID.
Business owners and leaders are adopting a strategy of inquiring and learning to facilitate decisions going forward.
Managing a business under the COVID 19 situation as the traditional, linear, project-like approach commerce favours cannot produce a successful outcome. Why?
1. Because there is no history or experience of this kind of situation to inform management the business how to progress the business. In other words, there is no safe ‘blueprint’ to follow for a successful outcome. Everyone is learning as the situation unfolds.
2. There are so many people involved, each experiencing different emotions that will explode if a decision is made that makes them feel more uncertain.
3. Everyone has different needs. If these needs are not addressed, riots can break out and civil unrest.
So, a different management approach is needed, one that captures, learns, and considers everyone’s emotions and needs within legislation so that outcomes are favourable (not necessarily ideal) for everyone.
The different management approach is a systemic approach, one that embraces change, uncertainty, is always acutely on the ball with the needs and emotions of their workers, customers, shareholders, legislation, technologies, and are insightful about the impact their decisions will have on all these factors.
To do this successfully organisations are continuously capturing feedback from these groups, and the wider society, and learning along the way as the situation unfolds. This collective knowledge informs the business owner/leaders what steps to take going forward. Both governments and employers provide weekly updates because they need to learn as the situation unfolds before making the next decisions going forward.
Earlier today we received notification informing us we were the most viewed Quora writer in the topic of Innovation Management.
“What are the three stages of strategic management?” and “ “How many types of strategic management are there?”
The original question was “What are the three stages of strategic management?” but was merged and published under “How many types of strategic management are there?” Each question has a different answer.
“What are the three stages of strategic management?”
From a technology, innovation and change management perspective, the three stages of strategic management are below in no specific order:
Stage 1: Diagnose the problem.
Stage 2: What is the guiding policy that will influence and impact any proposed solutions.
Stage 3: Coherent actions. A strategy is not a to do list, it is coherent set of precisely planned and scheduled actions for implementing and reviewing the strategy at pre-set intervals.
“How many types of strategic management are there?”
There are too many to mention all, so here are a few examples:
Horizontal vs vertical
A business plan, explicit or implicit, is the blueprint of your business. So it is different for each business. Below are some general questions to answer.
In my experience working with start-ups and existing businesses, I find the best place to start is to graphically represent the business as a business model. It is far easier for everyone to understand the business when viewed as a graphic, and to build on.
I like to use an adapted version of Gassman, Frankenberger, and Csik (2014) “magic triangle” framework (below) as it provides a simple, easy to understand graphic of the information needed to create a business plan and model with the focus on the view from your customer’s perspective of the value you provide.
Each corner of the triangle and the centre can be developed with more information as your research develops. The details can easily transfer into a business plan and an interesting pitch deck for those presentations to potential investors.
Simply fill in the four circles. Who is your target market, what value are you providing your target market, how will you provide it, at what cost, price, and mark-up (pricing model)?
Now build onto your initial answers for each circle providing much more detail as you progress. Detail comes from your knowledge of your business and experience. It also comes from thorough research and analysis. For example:
These are some of the questions to answer. Once answered add the information you accumulate to the different triangle circles. Show you know your business, market, and finances.
Now you can easily transfer the information from the graphic into a old format business plan with headings such as described by SmartAsset Top 10 Components of a Business Plan - SmartAsset
Mulgan (2007)  describes innovation as “new ideas that work”. Social innovation can refer to innovation in interactions and relationships. It can also refer to innovation aiming to overcome a social need rather than a market need. Here we focus on the latter.
Social innovation ecosystem can occur across a national, regional, global scale, across sectors, organisations, and entrepreneurs. As technologies advance, new opportunities for any individual, organisation, or company to innovate, to find new ways to do old things, arise, often providing solutions to social problems. And, of course, lets not forget that without society social innovation would not be required.
In recent times it has become very expensive for organisations to have their own in house R & D department. Technology has provided a platform for global collaboration. Together, innovation can happen faster and produce more effective innovations than any one company can produce. In addition, the availability of funding for innovation and product development is often directed at solving pressing social needs.
Here is one practical example of how innovation addresses social needs from The Alzheimer's Society:
Lewis’s grandmother Pat has reduced cognitive function as a result of Dementia. Pat forgets to drink, or does not enjoy, water throughout the day, as a result of the reduced cognitive function. The result is dehydration for which Pat needs to be hospitalised. How can dehydration be prevented, or at least reduced so that Pat can continue to live a full, independent life?
Possible social solution:
Because Pat enjoys sweets, Lewis has developed large sweets called JellyDrops that are 90% water. Pat can eat as many as she wants, whenever she wants. Pat can place jars of Jellydrops throughout the home in every room. The bright colours attract attention, look tasty, so encourage regular consumption. The more consumed the less chance of dehydration.
This solution can be easily distributed across society at low cost supporting everyone with a similar problem.
 Jelly Drops sweets to tackle dehydration in dementia
Most innovations are build on what already exists. Very few are inventions. The definition of innovation according to BIS (2012), is “innovation is the process by which new ideas are successfully exploited to create economic, social, and environmental value.”
In today’s business environment all businesses are developing the internal capabilities to innovate their products/services/processes dynamically and continuously. The capability is a necessity born out of the exponential growth of technological developments. New technologies are developed every 18 months (Moore’s Law). So most business are innovative. Those that have not adapted by developing this capability have closed, are closing, or have bought smaller, more innovative companies.
Here are a few household names who innovate services/products/processes since around 1995:
Air BnB (holiday accommodation),
IBM (their business model)
Procter and Gamble (their innovation business model)
Amazon (online books, Cloud services)
Elon Musk (space travel, electric cars)
Facebook, You Tube, Instagram, Snapchat, Whatsapp (social media apps)
Boston Dynamics - Google (robotics)
Google - (machine learning)
Ebay (online auction).
These are examples of how companies formed through skillful application of technologies to create new products/services/processes/business structures valuable to new and existing markets.
The short answer is that until the start of widespread technology adoption around 2008, small businesses had the upper hand in many ways. Examples are:
To survive businesses have employed skilled CTO’s over 10 years to adapt their business. Here are a few:
The question implies you are a business owner trying to adapt your business to Google Sites.
Try approaching this question the other way around.
In other words, start by working out the optimum workflow and processes from your customers perspective. Then adapt Google sites (or any other software) to your business. If Google sites can’t be adapted, choose another app that can.
Doing it this way around provides all the answers you need.
The definition of innovation, according to BIS (2012), is “innovation is the process by which new ideas are successfully exploited to create economic, social, and environmental value.”
So the new idea/innovation is not enough on its own. Rather it is part of a much larger process that contributes to the innovation being successfully adopted by users.
In fact, the innovation is the outcome of things such as: